Title : Bahasa Indonesia: Policy, Implementation, and Planning

Author : Risa R. Simanjuntak

Publication : Volume 3 No 1, May 2009 page 11-19

Abstract :

Language policy or language planning is still in the surge for familiarity and importance. However, this paper argues that in the case of Bahasa Indonesia current implementations should be evaluated based on its relevance and future plan. The historical perspectives will reveal the roots of the current policy and therefore make foundations for further discussions. From the study of literature, this paper is arguing that new paradigm for nationalism, roles in the global competition, as well as regional languages as competitive advantage could be well adopted to nurture a more inclusive and progressive Bahasa Indonesia.

Goals :

To discuss about the emergence of language policies in Indonesia, the implementation ot the policies regarding Bahasa Indonesia and some challenges in planning. Also discuss about the implication for language teaching.

Problems :

Bahasa Indonesia is still evolving rigorously. They are constant struggles between power maintenance and preservation of regional languages. They appear as moulding process for an ideal national languages as part of national identity.

Theories :

This journal takes the theories from Ager (2001) as the guide of making language policy.

Methods :

This paper looks carefully on the issue through the study of literature. There are some  documents, publications, and also government’s reports consulted as the ground for arguments. A wide range of literature selection will then be arranged to its importance, the older ones for more historical reference purposes, and a more current selection of reference for the actualisation of discussion.

Findings :

  1. There are aspects of history and national multi identities in relation to implementation and further change consideration.
  2. In respect to Indonesia’s language policy some aspects must be carefully taken into consideration: firstly us nationalism and status of regional languages.

Conclusion :

Discussion on the increasingly important notion on language policy bears its complexity. There are aspects of history and national multi identities in relation to implementation and further change considerations. In respect to the Indonesian Language Policy way forward, some aspects need to be carefully taken into consideration. Firstly is nationalism. Status of regional languages, in comparison to Bahasa Indonesia and relationship with foreign languages need to be aligned with the current situations. The emergence of nationalism idealism should be actualized with the current global relationships. In addition to this, more collaborative partnerships with external parties should be taken into the perspective of nationalism and national language. As the result of the world becomes a global village, more interactions could be at the end shape of nation’s identity, including the national language. This should be aimed to position Bahasa Indonesia, or even knowledge of any regional languages in Indonesia, as a competitive advantage in global trading initiatives.

Secondly, the government’s commitment to be more transparent and discursive in the application of national language, and the policy following its use could further the growth of Bahasa Indoensia as a key element in national communication with the participation of its users, and more awareness of language policy could help the fostering of Bahasa Indonesia in the future.



Title : The Study of Language Planning in National Educational Policy (NEP) 2017 in  Pakistan

Journal article taken from: European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (

Author : Waheed Shahzad, Syed Khuram Shahzad, Rana Iqtadar Ahmed and Rabia Jabeen

Publication : Vol.6, No.7, pp.5-19, October 2018

Abstract :

This journal was written to analyze and give some suggestions concerning language planning in National Education Policy (NEP) 2017. Each government permitted new articles in the constitutions and policies but without following a suitable line of investigation and management of researchers. So in this state of affairs language planning changed into more important beside other national troubles. From the initial day of Pakistan, Pakistani facing tribulations regarding language planning even one of our parts now Bangladesh was separated mainly because of this issue. Pakistan is a multilingual country with five major languages and fifty eight other languages. Language planning is need of all countries especially countries having multilingual and multi-ethnic makeup, Pakistan is one of those countries which have not only multilingual composition but also a conflict on the basis of languages. The scope of this study is that the researcher giving some new plans and suggestions to amend policies. In present time ‘National Education Policy 2017’ is a good step towards the development. Language planning is official and government-level policy concerning the assortment and promotion of a incorporated administrative language or languages. The researcher recommended that Urdu is a sign of nationalism and lingua franca and English as global language must run side by side, so we can accomplish maximum consequences by competing with the other countries in respect of nationalism. Some suggestions as followings:

The issue of language planning should be taken as national issue of Pakistan. All language policies should be made after proper research by the skilled linguistics, psychologists, sociologist and policy makers. Major work should be done on Pakistan language especially in respect of corpus planning as well as status planning to make it a standard language of Pakistan.

Goals :

The goals of its is to discuss and analyze about the language planning in National Education Planning (NEP) in Pakistan, what language that the country need to use to reach the goals of language as the teaching tools and the policy of the use local language in the education area.

Problems :

Pakistan is a multilingual language country. One of the Pakistan part, Bangladesh, was separated to use the difference language. Thats why the writer need to make give some suggestion and plans to repair this problem.

Theories :

The writer used theories from The view of Ruiz (1984), Schieffelin, Woolard, & Kroskrity, (1998), about the choice that are related to the linguistic and language, and in the ways which particular linguistics are viewed and reshaped are called language orientation and ideology (Irvine and Gal, 2000). A term used specially for the (Irvine and Gal, 2000) socio linguistics field where some aspects of linguistic diversity are ignored.

Methods :

The methods that used by the writers is a theoretical study, the use of data collects, analysis, and interpretation quality.

Findings :

Arabic language declared to be taught to entire Pakistanis as religious language, because Islamic education teaches the human the basic concepts of Islam such as beliefs, Seerat and worship.

Conclusion :

According to the objectives of this study the linguistics aspects of NEP 2017 were analyzed the major conclusion was that, this policy was better than other policies in the sense of the use of local languages in the education. As UNESCO (2007) had pointed out the importance of mother tong in the grooming and growing the mental abilities and concepts of the goals of their learning. This policy had also given importance to the Arabic language as religious language of the Muslims.



Title : Literature Review of Language Planning and Language Policy since 21st Century

Author : Ningning Hao

Publication : Vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 888-892, July 2018

Abstract :

As a major part of sociolinguistics, language planning has become a major research topic for many scholars. As a branch of Applied Linguistics, language planning is not a theoretical field of academic research, but mainly based on solving language problems in society. In the past 50 years, language planning research has been deepened and the coverage has gradually expanded. Especially, since 1990s, language planning has become a subject of rejuvenation, which has increasingly highlighted its importance and research prospects.

This paper will review and analyze the general situation of language planning research in the past 20 years at home and abroad, and look forward to the future trend of language planning research.

Goals :

Discussed the problems of the language policy and planning, such as the disappearance of languages, language revival, language variation and language contact, language transfer and language communication and expansion and so on, from the angles of society, economy and politics.

Problems :

Attitudes towards language specification and bad languages, bilingualism and multilingualism, protection of language disappearance and endangered languages, language choices and language education policies as human rights and civil rights.

Theories :

The representatives are Bernald Spolksy’s three books published by University of Cambridge press.

Methods :

The writer use language policy theorists as the guidance of her paper.

Findings :

Chosing views, and proposing language planning and management methods (Spolsky, 2012, p 15).

The social process has three major characteristics: globalization, migration, and regional management. The theoretical model of language policy and planning undoubtedly must comply with the needs of the times. Although new research issues are constantly emerging, the old issues will still be noticed. These are the essential features of language policy and planning disciplines.

Conclusion :

A language need to adapt to change, not only to discover new phenomena and new problems, but to reassess past practices and existing theories based on new knowledge. Language policy theorists and practitioners not only need to explain the current observed facts, but also provide necessary guidance for those who want to resolve conflicts, improve communication efficiency, and respect language variants. Because of this, they often need to avoid too simple models and solutions. Scholars generally do not directly put forward clear recommendations, but rather reveal the complexities of understanding the challenges of understanding language policies, describing socio-linguistic ecology, recognizing many opposing views, and proposing language planning and management methods (Spolsky, 2012, p 15).

Zhao Ronghui pointed out that three aspects of the book, such as the lack of interdisciplinary perspectives, the lack of theoretical construction, and the inadequate research methods, are the areas in which the book is in short supply.” And in fact, this is also some serious problems of language planning that the domestic researchers are facing. Chen Zhangtai considers that:”…… The scientific research is not adequate and strong enough, and the language planning theory is relatively weak, and some language planning activities and practices are not scientific enough.”

In recent years, the study of language planning focuses on practical research. Many scholars use the theory of language planning to analyze language planning and language policies of one or several countries or a political and economic union from an academic perspective. Krzyanowski and Wodak (2011) discuss the relationship between politics and multilingual policy, deeply exploring EU multilingualism during Lisbon strategic period. They believe that the economic factors of language policy and multilingual policy mainly depend on the EU strategy deployment on the overall economic development. Georgiou (2011) discussed the standardization of geographical names in Cyprus. Nolan (2010) conducted a detailed study of the French language policy and multilingual status, and explored many language events from 1992 to 2004



Ahmed, Rana Iqtadar,. Jabeen, Rabia,. Shahzad, Syed Khuram,. Shahzad, Waheed. (2018). The Study of Language Planning in National Educational Policy (NEP) 2017 in Pakistan. European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (

Hao, Ningning. (2018). Literature Review of Language Planning and Language Policy since 21st Century. Academy Publication.

Simanjuntak, Risa R.(2009). Bahasa Indonesia: Policy, Implementation, and Planning. Jurnal LINGUA CULTUR, 11-19.


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